Gina (byondbordm) wrote in cleveland_core,
Gina
byondbordm
cleveland_core



formatting makes them too big...so here they are..but no formatting...
the second one is kinda weak....everythings there except the detail about two philosphes

Final Outline: Question 1
I. Intro:
II. David’s Oath of Horatii
A. Storyline
1. From the Classical Roman story, Liby
2. Republican Rome is at war with a neighboring town, Alba
3. Don’t want to have a complete blood battle with brothers killings brothers – 3 Horatii brothers from Rome, 3 Curatii brothers from Alba fight to the end
4. A Horatii brother is married to a Curatii woman, a Curatii man engaged to a Horatii woman; women loose either way, either a brother or lover
5. All Curatii die, one Horatii lives and returns to Rome
6. His sister has lost her future husband and curses Rome, he kills her for the curse she has said
B. David doesn’t choose an actual scene from the story, chooses before the battle, the three brothers are making an oath to their father to either die in battle or come back victorious
1. Organized in threes, there are three arches in each arch is a different part of the scene
a. Left arch has the three brothers their arms raised to their father holding their swards, they are in a triangular shape
b. The middle arch is the father holding the three swards up to his sons, the father makes a triangular shape with the sons
c. The right arch has the women crying because they are irrational and let our their emotions, still in a triangle but a collapsing triangle because they are irrational
C. With this painting, David is saying that people are rational, therefore nature is rational (people are part of nature). He derived this idea from John Locke and his ideas of a clockwork universe.
1. This painting is meant to appeal to the clockwork order of the universe
a. there is order
b. there is a moral message – die for your country
2. They are rational because rather than completely destroying two cities, they have a three vs. three war to determine how to settle the conflict.
3. With the oath we see that the state is the most important thing, more important than any human life.
D. Locke
1. All men are created equal, deserve equal rights as long as they use reason
2. Criminals and animals are not equals because they don’t use reason
3. Women are less rational then men, through education they can become more equal because they are using reason
E. Enlightenment
1. An intellectual and cultural movement starting in Paris who’s leaders hoped to reform society in accordance with the insights of the scientific revolution and the values of reason, toleration, and natural laws.
a. The ideas of the Enlightenment
1) Reason
2) Perfectibility
3) Progress
b. The ideas they were against
1) Authority
2) Absolutism
3) Social hierarchy
4) Nationalism
2. The Enlightenment was led by the philosophes driven by their philosophical ideas. There were four philosophes: Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu
a. Locke: All men are equal, men are rational, women are as irrational as animals
b. Voltaire: All men should be treated as equals, there should be an enlightened monarch
c. Montesquieu: Peoples way of life depended on the area in which they lived, developed the idea of checks and balances
1) the government should be split up into several sections
2) this gives no one person absolute power
3) each section is dependent on the other so no one section can gain power
d. Rousseau: People were corrupted by society, when we are born we are in the pure state of nature, as we develop a society we become corrupt
F. Hegel
1. Hegel was a German philosopher who was part of the Enlightenment
2. Hegel sees humans as rational, therefore he sees nature as rational because humans are part of nature
3. For Hegel, ultimate reality is Geist
a. Geist:
b. Each separate being has geist within and is a part of a unified dominating Geist
4. Because we are all part of the bigger being, Geist, no one or nothing can live alone, everything lives and is conscious as an effect of something else in the universe
a. All humans are part of society, there for society is a part of all humans – one can not be without the other, both need the other to exist
b. We are put out in the universe for self – discovery, Hegel believes that history is a movement of self – discovery, everything that happens is a step forward, all that is new is better and more rational than that of previous times
G. Frankenstein
1. Elizabeth
a. Elizabeth is deathly ill. Victor’s mother helped to heal Elizabeth, Elizabeth was like a daughter to her. In the process of healing Elizabeth, she grew ill as well and died. Although she died, Elizabeth managed to survive.
b. Like the Horatii brothers in the painting pledging to die for their country, Frankenstein’s mother will die for Elizabeth.
2. Victor Frankenstein
a. Victor takes it upon himself to go against nature and try to bring life into the world. He wants to build a monster from non living parts.
b. As he has tried to take control of nature, he becomes sick.
c. He has sacrificed his health to doing this immoral task and create a monster.
H. Les Miserables
1. Fantine
a. Fantine has a child with a man, the man then realizes it is time to grow up and be part of society so leaves her. Cosette is left as an illegitimate child
b. Fantine loves Cosette and will do anything for her. She looses her job because she has an illegitimate child which is seen as very wrong in this society. She can no longer afford to take care of her child alone, and she doesn’t have time for her if she is going to be working to make a living for the two of them. She sends Cosette to live with someone else and pays for her care.
c. In order to pay for Cosette’s care, she has to get a job. She can no longer get a job with this fact out in the open. She will not turn to prostitution, so first sells her teeth and then her hair. Both these features were described in great detail about her natural beauty. Once she still needs money she turns to prostitution.
d. She has sold everything she has, even herself for the care of Cosette.
III. Constable’s Haywain
A. Description
1. In the Stour Valley
2. Peasants (no faces) crossing a small stream with an empty hay wagon
3. There is a dog on the bank/side of the water
4. To the left is a small cottage, not massive
a. already ancient
b. colors are earth toned
c. a tree is almost growing out of the house, the house is becoming part of the earth
5. mid – ground is an empty pasture with scattered cows
6. doesn’t go into city, just a dense thick forest, no sign of civilization
7. half of the painting is clouds, from the clouds you can tell a storm is just passing, we know its passing and not coming because the peasants are out
8. This painting shows that nature is enormous and vast, stretching beyond human comprehension. Nature is not a clockwork universe, but a living, breathing thing.
9. The storm in the painting is not seen as a threat, the storm provides water to help plants grow, providing food. People living with nature have a better chance of surviving. Our role in nature is to live with nature and embrace nature, not fight nature
10. This is the time of imperialism; people are off exploring new lands. They find these primitive people living with nature. Although they are primitive, they are honest and kind.
B. Rousseau
1. These primitive people living with nature are Rousseau’s “Noble Savages”
a. “Noble Savage”
1) primitive people, people that live in nature rather than civilization
2) don’t lie, cheat, or steal
3) honest and brave
4) don’t have an official religion, spirits of earth
5) no fancy costumes, simple, nature loves and accepts them
6) should be admired
2. Rousseau believes that civilization has corrupted society. Before civilization, we lived in nature and we were pure, honest, kind beings
3. With civilization came competition, lying, wars – we have to fight to survive
4. If it were up to him, to create a better society, he would go back in time to this time when people lived with nature, no civilization. This time is too far away from the present so he looks upon the “Noble Savages” as admiration for how to behave in society.
C. Blake “The Garden of Love”
1. In the poem, nature is described as pastoral setting, then Blake puts a negative spin on nature. He expresses the dangers in nauter.
2. It is said that something that was thought of as innocent has fooled nature and disrupted is original pure and natural, pastoral state.
3. A church has been built in the middle of the garden. This disrupts the natural spirituality that was already there in nature. Religion has taken over and destroyed nature. (Religion is a form of society – society is taking over nature)
D. Wordsworth “The Tables Turned”
1. Talks of how nature is good and books and science is bad
2. In description of nature, he describes nature’s pastoral setting
3. We should embrace nature. Put down books and learn from a first hand experience.
4. “ Our meddling intellect/Mis – shapes the beauteous forms of things: We murder to diesect” Science and society are oppressing and killing nature
E. Les Miserables
1. Fantine
a. In the beginning of the play, Hugo describes the character Fantine. Fantine is a poor woman who was raised by only society. He describes her natural perfection and natural beauty. Fantine has had no outside influences on her looks or way of being, it is all pure and from her natural state. He spends pages and pages describing her natural beauty, her hair and teeth.
b. She is working and is perfect in everyway. Her co – workers become jealous of her perfection and search for the one imperfection she may have that they know must be there.
c. They find that she has an illegitimate child. This is frowned upon in society; she is basically rejected from society.
d. For both her life and the life of her daughter, she must find a job and pay for their living. She can no longer find a job and all that is left is prostitution. She refuses to turn to prostitution.
e. Rather than be a prostitute, is very possible for her with her natural state of beauty, she sells both her teeth and hair. Both these qualities, Hugo spent very much time of the natural beauty.
f. Society has led her to go from the perfection of her natural state to a torn apart, destroyed product of society.
F. Industrial Revolution
1. Industrialization: the process of substituting humans by machines for the manufacture of goods.
2. Agricultural Revolution
a. The Enclosure Movement: In the 1700’s England is composed of several small farms. The wealthy land owners begin to take over the smaller farms and buying them to increase their own size, they put fences around their farms to enclose their piece of land. The small farmers are out of business now because their farms have been bought. The wealthy farmers sometimes offer jobs and rent for the smaller farmers, this allows them to have workers and make money
b. They wanted to make their estates more profitable so they looked for new agricultural techniques
1) The four – crop rotation. Previously was the change from two - crop rotation to three – crop rotation. There are two different types of plants and one follow plot. It is now discovered that clover can replenish the soil, so you have three crops and clover giving you a four crop harvest. This is more efficient.
2) The seed drill, this gives more control to the seeds to crops are more plentiful
c. the small farmers were forced to move to the cities to become factory workers – urbanization: the movement of people from the countryside to the big cites
3. The Industrial Revolution began in England because they had recourses
a. Iron to build machines
b. Coal to fuel machines
c. Navigate able rivers and inland transportation to spread ideas
4. Inventions
a. Manchester was the capitol of the textile industry. There were many invention in the textile industry
1) John Kays invents the flying shuttle.
2) James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny.
3) Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin which separates the cotton fibers from the seeds
b. Factories were an improvement to the textile industry
1) factories allowed for more work at a given time
2) factories concentrated on single products
5. With the development of a city, there were laws, the Closure Laws, created competition; the small farmers got pushed off their lands. The bigger farmers expanded their lands making and made new inventions to make it more efficient. The town grew and they needed more. Development of factories and small farmers had no choice but to work for factories. The development of this town, pushed the farmers away from their natural state of living in nature by creating competition and need for expansion.
1) Deforestation: many natural forests and lands were destroyed in order to expand cities for economic growth
2) Deforestation caused the destruction of animal and plant habitats. With forests and tress being cut down, these animals no longer had a place to.
G. Romantics
1. As the city developed and everyone was living under the rational rule of the Bourgeoisie, their children turned to the ideas of Rousseau.
a. Started the Bohemian movement.
b. Against rules and society
c. Followed emotions rather than reason
d. Wanted a sense of freedom like there was in nature
IV. Raft of Medusa
A. There were four ships sent to Senegal from France. The three ships were told to stay together so they all arrive safely and together. To ensure safety, they were to sail to open see and then proceed down to Senegal. The medusa was the leasing ship. The captain of the Medusa hasn’t sailed in twenty years and the time he sailed he was not a captain. The only reason this job was given to him was he was against Napoleon so he would not turn on Louis.
B. The Mayor wanted to get there faster so they sailed down the coast. Because he was an inexperience captained he let a random passenger aboard that said he knew the coast sail. He really didn’t know the coast and they got stuck in a sand trap. There was really no danger but they abandoned ship.
C. There were not enough life boats so the Mayor and captain and crew went about the life boats. The other 147 passengers (doctors, scientists, etc. built a raft and the raft was to be towed by the life boats). The raft was so heavy that it sunken to chest level and slowed the boats down. Wanting to get there faster, they cut the ropes and left the raft.
D. On the raft fights broke out and each day more and more people died. There was no food and no water, the salt water only made them thirstier. As people died, they turned to cannibalism. They were out in the middle of the ocean for about two weeks until a life boat was sent back to the ship to get the gold. The gold was not found but the raft with fifteen people still alive was found, those fifteen people were brought back and hospitalized. Once back in France, most died
E. Gericult chose to show the fifteen people on the raft as a painting. He made the raft a lot smaller than it truly was to exaggerate and express the true crowdedness of the raft. He also puts us on the raft so we are experiencing this as well. It is all death. Off to one corner is a pyramid of people with the doctor on top waving a rag.
F. There are two diagonals – diagonal of life and diagonal of death
1. The first going from the end where we are to the top of the pyramid. This is expressing that by working together we can overcome it. We may not be able to overcome it, but we don’t have a chance unless we work together.
2. The second is going from one end to the sail. The sail is being pushed by the wind and it is being pushed into a wave that swallows them. This storm is bringing them death
G. Shows that nature is vicious and cruel but that we need to work together at a chance to overcome it. We have to disregard our vicious and cruel human nature and work together.
H. Frankenstein
1. Victor Frankenstein sees a tree being destroyed by lightning. This is a warning to him that nature can destroy things and is more powerful than him.
2. After having a dream of his mother and Elizabeth, Frankenstein wants to create a monster, which is a living being from non living things. This is unnatural because he is not designed to bring life into the world.
a. It is a dream of his mother and Elizabeth because they are women so in a way they have the power to bring life into the world
b. After creating the monster, it roams around unable to be controlled
c. The monster ends up killing Victors brother
1) As a result of messing with nature, nature turns his creation on him
3. We can not control nature, if we try and control nature, nature will come back and beat us
I. Convergence of the Twain – Hardy
1. Describes the tragic event of the Titanic
2. Each stanza describes a different part of the ship, the first two lines how it was and the last line how it is
3. The event wasn’t on accident, it was destined to happen, described as a man and woman coming together in marriage
4. The people who built the ship had a sense of hubris and thought it could go through anything so nature got back at them
5. Nature has been passive and sat while science took over, now becoming active
J. Schopenhauer
1. Life is a struggle.
a. We are wills yearning to live.
b. We will never be happy because we are always yearning.
2. Other people are the cause of our suffering.
3. The raft is a manifestation of his ideas
a. We must work together to lesson the burden.
b. He only way to be closer to happiness is to help other to help ourselves.
V. Death of Sardanapalus
A. King Saradanapalus is the Assyrian emperor at the time. Assyrians are generally very tough and strong people, but Saradanapalus was very decadent and feminine. Rather than focusing on protecting the empire, he focused on indulging himself.
1. Sat around and bought things all day
2. Dressed like a women in expensive clothes
3. Seduced young boys and had orgies all the time
B. The Assyrian enemies realized there was a weak ruler and attacked as revenge for all the times Syria attacked and beat them.
1. They pierced through the town walls
2. Saradanapalus knew he was going to die, if he was going to die he decided he was going to being all of his things with him
a. He had his servants build a funeral pyre
b. On the funeral pyre he had all of his wives and concubines, his horses, his treasure, and his servants. They were all killed in front of him and then he drank poison. As he was dieing he instructed the funeral pyre to be lit. He was then burnt with everything he had.
3. Delacroix inspired by this story and decided to make it into a picture. He admired and found great similarities with this ruler that he painted his own face on Sardanapalus’ body.
4. This painting shows Sardanapalus laying on his blood red bed that is on a funeral pyre and all around him his “things” are either dead or being killed. Mostly it is the woman and animals that are shown being killed.
5. There are two main diagonals which create emotion
a. One goes from Saradanapalus down his bed to the very sexual woman being killed. (the woman is both sexual and being slaughtered/gore, these are both things that have been seen before but not together – together it is horrifying). The bed is red, like a stream of blood adding to the emotion and commotion of the painting.
b. The other goes from the horse through the reins and up the bed to the window that shows the people of Nineveh at war.
C. This painting shows humans being irrational and vicious cruel. This determines that like humans, nature is vicious and cruel. Opposite of Gericuilt, Delacroix doesn’t see this as a bad thing. It is part of human nature and nature is good, you should embrace this idea and indulge yourself in the cruel and viciousness of human nature. Sardanapalus can be seen as Nietzsche’s superman.
D. Nietzsche
1. Nietzche believes that all of reality is a “will to power”. People will do all they can to gain power and dominate others. In reality we are all fighting against ourselves because the universe is one central will to power where we confuse it as separate beings wanting to gain power over others.
2. For Nietzsche the ultimate being is not one who dominates all others, but one that completely understands himself and his desires. In this way he can overcome his desire to dominate and mange himself in creating a new world. This is known as a superman.
3. When a man becomes a superman, he is seen as the leader. All the others that have not succeeded in this follow him.
E. This idea of the superman can be seen with the Bourgeoisie
1. The Bourgeoisie were oppressed and over came their desires and rose to power. They use this idea to prove their superiority to others.
2. With the idea that they are more superior, they are more suitable to live than the other classes
3. This begins to demonstrate social Darwinism.
F. Social Darwinism
1. The bourgeoisie needed to find a way to justify their oppression of the peasants/working class.
2. To do this Herbert Spencer took Darwin’s original idea that was applied to animals to say that the most fit animals will survive while the unfit will die. He adopted this idea for people to say that the bourgeoisie were better than the working class and that is why they should oppress the working class.
3. This is also how they justified that giving charity was bad, by giving charity you are slowing down the process of natural selection by helping the unfit people to survive and pass on their genes.
VI. Conclusion:



Final Outline: Question Two
I. Intro:
II. Background
A. The Enlightenment
a. The origins of the Enlightenment
a. Political
1) Revolution against political abuses of the 17th century
2)
b. Scientific
1) Science introduces new standards for finding truth
2) Eliminates any abstract notion for which no physical evidence exists
c. Religious
1) Physical Theology
a) A modern version of scholasticism
b) An attempt to explain God’s existence through nature, not the bible
2) Deism
a) Deists saw no point in an particular religion
b) Recognize a distant God, one who created the world but is not involved in everyday life
3) Unitarianism
a) Believed in one God (not the trinity of Catholic belief)
b) Individuals have the right to lead their spiritual life the way they want
b. An intellectual and cultural movement starting in Paris whose leaders hoped to reform society in accordance with the insights of the scientific revolution and the values of reason, toleration, and natural laws.
a. The ideas of the Enlightenment
1) Reason
2) Perfectibility
3) Progress
b. The ideas they were against
1) Authority
2) Absolutism
3) Social hierarchy
4) Nationalism
c. The Enlightenment was led by the philosophes driven by their philosophical ideas. There were four philosophes: Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu
a. Locke: All men are equal, men are rational, women are as irrational as animals
b. Voltaire: All men should be treated as equals, there should be an enlightened monarch
c. Montesquieu: Peoples way of life depended on the area in which they lived, developed the idea of checks and balances
1) the government should be split up into several sections
2) this gives no one person absolute power
3) each section is dependent on the other so no one section can gain power
d. Rousseau: People were corrupted by society, when we are born we are in the pure state of nature, as we develop a society we become corrupt
B. Causes of the French Revolution
a. Louis XVI became a ruler at a young age and made bad decisions and wasted money.
a. He was incapable of strong decision making
b. He was strongly influenced by his wife Marie Antoinette
c. He was more interested in his personal interests than that of the court
b. Over ambitious wars were fought outside of France that cost too much money and depleted the national budget.
a. American revolution
b. 6-day war
c. Introduction to revolutionary ideas
1) Take up arms against tyranny
2) Liberal freedoms for all men
3) No taxation without representation
4) A republic is superior to a monarchy
c. Financial difficulties
a. need for tax reform
1) the peasants and bourgeoisie were unhappy because they were the only ones how had to pay taxes
2) Nobles were determined not to give up their tax concessions
b. The Government had large debts with heavy interest
1) Over ambitious wars
2) Extravagant spending on courts
a) while the city was in debt, Marie – Antoinette continued to indulge herself with food, clothing and beauty
d. The price of flour was deregulated causing the price of bread to go up. Peasants could no longer afford bread on their weekly earnings and began to starve. Their hatred toward the king increased.
e. The population was divided into three estates. The bourgeoisie were angry because the king would no long allow them to buy their noble title
f. There was an extremely cold winter.
III. Events of the French Revolution
A. Estate General
1. French Congress that has the power to change the form of government. Met to discuss the crisis in Versailles
2. They protested the lack of equality and opportunity in France (fight b/t nobles and bourgeoisie)
3. Voting was unfair for the 3rd because the nobles and clergy joining outvoted them 2 to 1.
4. By the ideas of Locke and natural rights, 3rd protested that since they were the majority of population, they should get more votes.
5. 3rd declared that they were the true representatives of the French nation and named themselves the new National Assembly.
6. Lower class clergy started joining at a tennis court à Tennis Court Oath: not disband until a new constitution for France.
7. In the end, Louis finally agreed with them, but is believed that he tried to abolish the National Assembly.
B. Louis was dismissing the Estate-General (1789)
1. The people attacked the Bastille, a royal prison housed in a medieval castle with thick walls.
2. Rumors that Bastille was holding political prisoners, bourgeoisie and sans-culottes.
3. Outside Bastille, the crowds began to believe that their leaders had been taken hostage. Even the guards turned against the Bastille and to open the gates. Did this to regain their own confidence for their struggle. (wanted to be heard by the king)
4. Louis was stuck, so he legalized the National Assembly as the new legislative body of France (agreed to constitutional monarchy and abdicated absolutism)
C. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
1. Approved the Bill of Rights à guaranteed liberties.
2. These rights are correlated to what the philosophes during the Enlightenment have believed.
3. Rumors started that the nobles were planning to take back power. Many left the country. Food started to become a shortage; nothing was going right.
4. Until when the colors of Austria were saluted and the new colors of France were spit on.
5. There was a mob of Parisian women marching on Versailles demanding bread with the new National Guard. Mob stormed the palace and Louis was liberated from the nobles and taken to Paris.
D. 1791- New Constitution of France: Bourgeois Dominance
1. The hierarchy of the nobility was abolished. Equality good and serfdom bad. (Reason/Bourg.)
2. All government positions were opened to every citizen regardless of class (Bourg.)
3. Church equality was seized and sold to wealthy Bourgeoisie (Reason)
4. Cruel and unusual punishment were abolished (reason)
5. Equality before the law (Bourg.)
IV. How the revolution is viewed
A. Hegel
1. Hegel was 18 when the revolution started. Being a teenage boy at the time of the revolution, he was very intrigued by it. He believed that it was the most important even that had happened thus far in his life.
2. Hegel views all of history as a step forward and part of a dialectic
a. Dialectic is a three part process of events – thesis, antithesis, synthesis
b. Thesis: The ideas of Louis XVI
c. Antithesis: The revolution was fought to gain rights from Louis
d. Synthesis: As a result of the revolution there was no longer an absolute monarch, but a constitutional monarch. This becomes the thesis in the next dialectic
e. Antithesis: The reign of terror was a statement against to constitutional monarch for one man to gain power
f. Synthesis: As a result of the reign of terror, Napoleon became the absolute ruler of France
3. Hegel believes that Napoleon would increase freedom in France. Napoleon is the product of dialectic; therefore he is the newest advancement in history. Hegel believes that as history proceeds, the world gets better. With progress a more rational state will be achieved.
B. Oath of Horatii
1. David’s Life
a. David lived through the French Revolution
b. His paintings were influenced by the revolutionary events and expressed somewhat of his ideas towards the revolution
1) With his paintings, he expresses that the revolution was meant to make a better, more perfect utopia society. This was the original goal, but all it seems to be doing is making it worse, more and more people dieing every day.
c. With the third phase of the revolution, he is thrown in jail, he is later freed. With the reign of Napoleon, he is the leader of the council. David sees Napoleon as a good and admirable leader. After Napoleon is exiled by the English, he is exiled where he then dies.
2. Storyline of painting
a. Republican Rome is at war with a neighboring town, Alba
b. Don’t want to have a complete blood battle with brothers killings brothers – 3 Horatii brothers from Rome, 3 Curatii brothers from Alba fight to the end
c. A Horatii brother is married to a Curatii woman, a Curatii man engaged to a Horatii woman; women loose either way, either a brother or lover
d. All Curatii die, one Horatii lives and returns to Rome
e. His sister has lost her future husband and curses Rome, he kills her for the curse she has said
f. As a result of this war, Rome and Alba have united under one Roman title creating a unified, better people
3. This painting was a success of neoclassical paintings
a. Organized in threes, there are three arches in each arch is a different part of the scene
1) Left arch has the three brothers their arms raised to their father holding their swards, they are in a triangular shape
2) The middle arch is the father holding the three swards up to his sons, the father makes a triangular shape with the sons
3) The right arch has the women crying because they are irrational and let our their emotions, still in a triangle but a collapsing triangle because they are irrational
b. They are rational because rather than completely destroying two cities, they have a three vs. three war to determine how to settle the conflict.
c. With the oath we see that the state is the most important thing, more important than any human life. This gives the moral meaning to die for your country.
d. The painting focuses on the foreground showing very little and unimportant background. The figures are frozen, statue like figures. There are no brush strokes visible.
e. Unlike Rococo which was basically nobles outdoors engaged in sexual activity and games. There figures are very delicate with small wispy brush strokes. There is no real meaning at all.
C. Les Miserables
1. Les Miserables displays pre and post revolutionary ideals. This can be seen with the two characters, Javert and Valgene, when they are in the police station determining the punishment for Fantine.
a. Javert
1) Javert is the representation of the absolute monarch
2) He believes that people can’t change, once they do something wrong that is how they always are, they can’t learn
3) He believes that social status determines righteousness. Right away because of Fantine’s social status, he decides she is guilty.
4) He wants to send Fantine to jail
b. Valgen (mayor)
1) He is a perfect example of proving Javert’s ideal wrong
a) when he was younger he was caught stealing bread. He was sent to jail and tied to escape. He ended up spending twenty – five years in jail for stealing a loaf of bread
b) He has now become the mayor
c) His wrongdoing is forgotten. It is hidden in his past and no one knows. All the people know is that he is the very well respected governor of this time.
2) Judging from his past he believes that Fantine should be sent free
3) He is the perfect example of the revolutionary ideas
D. Rousseau
1. Rousseau believes that civilization has corrupted society. Before civilization, we lived in nature and we were pure, honest, kind beings
2. People began putting up fences and closing off their lands. This started to create competition and social classes. Those whose plots grew became the upper class and those who were left with nothing became the lower class.
3. With civilization came competition, lying, wars – we have to fight to survive
4. Believed that the revolution was a positive thing. It was being fought to gain a sense of equality
5. Although he was for the revolution If it were up to him, to create a better society, he would go back in time to this time when people lived with nature, no civilization rather than with reason.
6. This time is too far away from the present so he looks upon the “Noble Savages” as admiration for how to behave in society.
E. Lander’s Peak
1. This idea of living with nature and being this “Noble Savage” can be seen in the painting Lander’s Peak.
2. Lander’s Peak was done at the time of the Civil War. The Civil War was the bloodiest battle; there were more deaths in just that battle than all the others combined.
a. Everything in the paintings is real, but then rearranged to express the more idealistic sublime view of nature that is shown when you are actually there. Sublime is an astonishing feeling when you see something, you are just in awe with no words to explain it. As much as you try to explain, there are no words to fully describe how it really was.
b. In the painting we see a few Native American. At this time, it is the end of the American Indian lifestyle, these are the last few aboriginal people to the area.
c. In the painting there is complete calmness and no worries. The Indians are living with nature. We also know that just miles away there is complete bloodshed in the war.
d. This painting tells us that with civilization comes death and destruction
e. With this painting, we can see the imagery of the natural world that Rousseau wants to return to.
F. Blake “The Garden of Love”
1. In the poem, nature is described as pastoral setting, then Blake puts a negative spin on nature. He expresses the dangers in nature.
2. It is said that something that was thought of as innocent has fooled nature and disrupted is original pure and natural, pastoral state.
3. A church has been built in the middle of the garden. This disrupts the natural spirituality that was already there in nature. Religion has taken over and destroyed nature. (Religion is a form of society – society is taking over nature)
G. Wordsworth “The Tables Turned”
1. Talks of how nature is good and books and science is bad
2. In description of nature, he describes nature’s pastoral setting
3. We should embrace nature. Put down books and learn from a first hand experience.
4. “ Our meddling intellect/Mis – shapes the beauteous forms of things: We murder to diesect” Science and society are oppressing and killing nature
H. Wile’s “Magdalene Walks”
1. With Magdalene Walks, we get a beautiful pastoral setting of nature in society as the day beings. Everything is awaking to the beauty of the new day
2. With these poems we can see the imagery of the natural world that Rousseau wants to return to.
I. Bohemians
1. As the city developed and everyone was living under the rational rule of the Bourgeoisie, their children turned to the ideas of Rousseau.
a. Started the Bohemian movement.
b. Against rules and society
c. Followed emotions rather than reason
d. Wanted a sense of freedom like there was in nature
J. Death of Saradanapalus (Nietzsche)
K. King Saradanapalus is the Assyrian emperor at the time. Assyrians are generally very tough and strong people, but Saradanapalus was very decadent and feminine. Rather than focusing on protecting the empire, he focused on indulging himself.
1. Sat around and bought things all day
2. Dressed like a women in expensive clothes
3. Seduced young boys and had orgies all the time
L. The Assyrian enemies realized there was a weak ruler and attacked as revenge for all the times Syria attacked and beat them.
1. They pierced through the town walls
2. Saradanapalus knew he was going to die, if he was going to die he decided he was going to being all of his things with him
a. He had his servants build a funeral pyre
b. On the funeral pyre he had all of his wives and concubines, his horses, his treasure, and his servants. They were all killed in front of him and then he drank poison. As he was dieing he instructed the funeral pyre to be lit. He was then burnt with everything he had.
3. Delacroix inspired by this story and decided to make it into a picture. He admired and found great similarities with this ruler that he painted his own face on Sardanapalus’ body.
4. This painting shows Sardanapalus laying on his blood red bed that is on a funeral pyre and all around him his “things” are either dead or being killed. Mostly it is the woman and animals that are shown being killed.
5. There are two main diagonals which create emotion
a. One goes from Saradanapalus down his bed to the very sexual woman being killed. (the woman is both sexual and being slaughtered/gore, these are both things that have been seen before but not together – together it is horrifying). The bed is red, like a stream of blood adding to the emotion and commotion of the painting.
b. The other goes from the horse through the reins and up the bed to the window that shows the people of Nineveh at war.
M. This painting shows humans being irrational and vicious cruel. This determines that like humans, nature is vicious and cruel. Opposite of Gericuilt, Delacroix doesn’t see this as a bad thing. It is part of human nature and nature is good, you should embrace this idea and indulge yourself in the cruel and viciousness of human nature. Sardanapalus can be seen as Nietzsche’s superman.
N. Nietzsche
1. Nietzche believes that all of reality is a “will to power”. People will do all they can to gain power and dominate others. In reality we are all fighting against ourselves because the universe is one central will to power where we confuse it as separate beings wanting to gain power over others.
2. For Nietzsche the ultimate being is not one who dominates all others, but one that completely understands himself and his desires. In this way he can overcome his desire to dominate and mange himself in creating a new world. This is known as a superman.
3. When a man becomes a superman, he is seen as the leader. All the others that have not succeeded in this follow him.
4. For this reason, Nietzsche doesn’t really have an either or opinion on the revolution. Rather sees it as another struggle for power in society.
5. Robespierre can also be seen as a superman because he was above the law.
a. Be took control of the revolution and made the laws.
b. He decided who died and who lived.
c. In this way he played God, and can be seen as the created of a new world.
O. This idea of the superman can be seen with the Bourgeoisie
1. The Bourgeoisie were oppressed and over came their desires and rose to power. They use this idea to prove their superiority to others.
2. With the idea that they are more superior, they are more suitable to live than the other classes
3. This begins to demonstrate social Darwinism.
P. Social Darwinism
1. The bourgeoisie needed to find a way to justify their oppression of the peasants/working class.
2. To do this Herbert Spencer took Darwin’s original idea that was applied to animals to say that the most fit animals will survive while the unfit will die. He adopted this idea for people to say that the bourgeoisie were better than the working class and that is why they should oppress the working class.
3. This is also how they justified that giving charity was bad, by giving charity you are slowing down the process of natural selection by helping the unfit people to survive and pass on their genes.
Q. Marx
1. Saw the revolution as incomplete and as a failure.
a. Instead of have a classless society one controlling group was replaced by another.
b. It never became a communism.
2. Napoleon came to power after as an absolute monarch and instilled some laws and regulations that helped France. Though this was on the right track to becoming a communism it was never finished.
a. Started the Napoleonic code for trade.
b. Made the first bank and used one currency to control inflation.
V. Conclusion:
(Thursday and Friday + if you think its positive or negative)
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